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As the minister of education, Anwar was elected as the 25th President of UNESCO's General Conference.
In 1988, Anwar Ibrahim became the second President of International Islamic University of Malaysia. During his tenure as Finance Minister his impact was immediate; Malaysia enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and economic growth.
Human rights groups, again, called the conviction politically motivated.
In Mahathir's absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps, which were in direct conflict with Mahathir's policies, to change the country's governing mechanisms.
Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict.
Anwar's frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up.
In 1982, Anwar, who was the founding leader and second president of a youth Islamic organisation called Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), shocked his liberal supporters by joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, who had become prime minister in 1981.
He moved up the political ranks quickly: his first ministerial office was that of Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983; after that, he headed the agriculture ministry in 1984 before becoming Minister of Education in 1986.