Updating from a higher level oe to a lower level

Women with PCOS show an increased risk of pregnancy complications.Heterogeneous aetiological factors involved in PCOS and associated co-morbidities may all be involved in compromised pregnancy and child outcomes.Although these data were obtained on infertile populations not selected for PCOS, the findings can be translated into infertile women with PCOS increasing the absolute risk of pregnancy complications up to clinically significant threshold.In line with these considerations, the current comprehensive review was aimed at summarizing the current knowledge regarding pregnancy complications in women with PCOS and its potential pathophysiology.An important issue in studying pregnancy complications in women with PCOS is the definition of the specific diagnostic features of PCOS, since the distinct variability in hormonal and metabolic abnormalities among various PCOS phenotypes could significantly influence the obstetric and neonatal outcomes observed (Palomba , 2010a; Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2012).The effect of obesity and/or IR and/or metabolic/hormonal abnormalities, which appear to vary across PCOS phenotypes, could play a crucial role (Moran , 2014) in infertile patients are all related to an increased relative risk of pregnancy complications.

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This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical and pathophysiological features of pregnancy and children in women with PCOS.Features characteristic of PCOS, such as hyperandrogenism, obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, may contribute to the increased risk of obstetric and neonatal complications.Limited available data suggest that offspring of women with PCOS have an increased risk for future metabolic and reproductive dysfunction.Systematic reviews with meta-analysis were initially included for each specific subject.Recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which were not included in the systematic reviews, were also included.

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